Spiders constitute one of the most successful clades of terrestrial predators . Their extraordinary diversity, paralleled only by some insects and mites , is often attributed to the use of silk, and, in one of the largest lineages, to stereotyped behaviors for building foraging webs of remarkable biomechanical properties . However, our understanding of higher-level spider relationships is poor and is largely based on morphology . We apply a next-generation sequencing approach to resolve spider phylogeny, examining the examl 3 stamatakis pdf github among its major lineages.
We further explore possible pitfalls in phylogenomic reconstruction, including missing data, unequal rates of evolution, and others. Either alternative demands a major reevaluation of our current understanding of the spider evolutionary chronicle. Phylogenomic approach to infer vespid wasp phylogenetic relationships. Combined phylogenetic analysis of transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data. Vespid wasp-specific target DNA enrichment probes presented. Support of the hypothesis of two origins of eusociality in Vespidae.
New classification for the former subfamily Eumeninae proposed. The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. Here we reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships using a phylogenomic approach. We sequenced the transcriptomes of 24 vespid wasp and eight outgroup species and exploited the transcript sequences for design of probes for enriching 913 single-copy protein-coding genes to complement the transcriptome data with nucleotide sequence data from additional 25 ethanol-preserved vespid species. Results from phylogenetic analyses of the combined sequence data revealed the eusocial subfamily Stenogastrinae to be the sister group of all remaining Vespidae, while the subfamily Eumeninae turned out to be paraphyletic. Of the three currently recognized eumenine tribes, Odynerini is paraphyletic with respect to Eumenini, and Zethini is paraphyletic with respect to Polistinae and Vespinae.
Overall, our findings corroborate the hypothesis of two independent origins of eusociality in vespid wasps and suggest a single origin of using masticated and salivated plant material for building nests by Raphiglossinae, Zethinae, Polistinae, and Vespinae. The inferred phylogenetic relationships and the open access vespid wasp target DNA enrichment probes will provide a valuable tool for future comparative studies on species of the family Vespidae, including their genomes, life styles, evolution of sociality, and co-evolution with other organisms. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. These two authors contributed equally to this work. Spiders constitute one of the most successful clades of terrestrial predators . Their extraordinary diversity, paralleled only by some insects and mites , is often attributed to the use of silk, and, in one of the largest lineages, to stereotyped behaviors for building foraging webs of remarkable biomechanical properties .